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To understand invertebrate zoology, one must understand comparative biology, the tasks of which are to describe the characteristics and patterns of living systems and to explain those patterns by the scientific livro invertebrados brusca.

When those patterns have resulted livro invertebrados brusca evolutionary processes, they illuminate the history of life on Earth. Biologists have been undertaking comparative studies of anatomy, morphology, embryology, physiology, and behavior for over years.

Many biologists, particularly systematists, do so with the specific intent of recovering the history of life.

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Because we cannot directly observe that history, we must rely on the strength of the scientific method to reconstruct it, or infer it. This chapter provides an overview of livro invertebrados brusca process.


Comparative biology, then, in its attempt to understand diversity in the living world, deals with three distinguishable elements: The field of biological systematics has experienced a revolution in its theory and application in the past 30 years, especially with regard to phylogenetic reconstruction.

Some philosophical aspects and operating principles of this exciting field are described livro invertebrados brusca this chapter.

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It is essential that biology students have livro invertebrados brusca basic grasp of how classifications are developed and phylogenetic relationships inferred, and we urge you to reflect carefully on the ideas presented below.

Classification, Systematics, and Phylogeny Our classifications will livro invertebrados brusca to be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, And you see that every time I made a further division, up came more boxes based on these divisions until I had a huge pyramid of boxes.

Finally you see that while I was splitting the cycle up into finer and finer pieces, I was also building a structure.

This structure of concepts is formally called a hierarchy and since ancient times has been a basic structure for all Western livro invertebrados brusca. First, it means the processof classifying, which consists of delimiting, ordering, and ranking organisms in groups.


Second, it means the productof this process, or the classificatory scheme itself. The living world has livro invertebrados brusca objective structure that can be empirically documented and described.

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One goal of biology is to discover and describe this structure, and classification is one way of doing this. Carrying out the process of biological classification constitutes one of the livro invertebrados brusca tasks of the systematist or taxonomist.


The construction of a classification may at first appear straightforward; basically, the process consists of analyzing livro invertebrados brusca in the distribution of characters among organisms.

The grouping process creates a system of subordinated, or nested, taxa singular, taxon arranged in a hierarchicalfashion following basic set theory. The concept of similarity is fundamental to taxonomy, the classificatory process, and comparative biology as a whole.

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Similarity, evaluated on the basis of characteristics shared among organisms, is livro invertebrados brusca accepted by biologists to be a measure of biological evolutionary relatedness among taxa. The concept of relatedness, or genealogical kinship, is also fundamental to systematics and evolutionary biology.

Patterns of relatedness are usually displayed by biologists in branching diagrams livro invertebrados brusca trees e.

Once constructed, livro invertebrados brusca trees can then be converted into classification schemes, which are a dynamic way of representing our understanding of the history of life on Earth. Thus, trees and classifications are actually hypotheses of the evolution of life and the natural order it has created.

Classifications are necessary for several reasons, not the least of which is to efficiently catalog the enormous number of species of organisms on Earth.