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Product description. Note: This is the highest level of BulletFlight (level M, Military). BulletFlight is a military-grade ballistic computer that provides quick solutions. Shots are at , , , , Rem , Win., Nosler gr CC. Range is m, approx 7 mph. BulletFlight is the only smartphone ballistics app that claims to be used by military snipers in Iraq and Afghanistan. Because KAC has access to.


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BULLET FLIGHT EPUB DOWNLOAD


This procedure has the effect of elevating bullet flight muzzle when the barrel must be subsequently raised to align the sights with the target. A projectile leaving a muzzle at a given elevation angle follows a ballistic trajectory bullet flight characteristics are dependent upon various factors such as muzzle velocity, gravity, and aerodynamic drag.

This ballistic trajectory is referred to as the bullet path.

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If the projectile is spin stabilized, aerodynamic forces will also predictably arc the trajectory slightly to the bullet flight, if the rifling bullet flight "right-hand twist. Therefore, to compensate for this path deviation, the sights also have to be adjusted left or right, respectively.

A constant wind also predictably affects the bullet path, pushing it slightly left or right, and a little bit more up and down, depending on the wind direction. The magnitude of these deviations are also affected by whether the bullet is on the upward or downward slope of the trajectory, due to a phenomenon called "yaw of repose," where a spinning bullet tends to steadily and predictably align slightly off center from its point mass trajectory.

Nevertheless, each of these trajectory perturbations are predictable once the projectile aerodynamic coefficients are established, through a combination of detailed analytical modeling and test range measurements.

The most detailed ballistic tables are developed for long range artillery and are based on six-degree-of-freedom trajectory analysis, which accounts for aerodynamic behavior along the three axial directions—elevation, range, and deflection—and the three rotational directions—pitch, yaw, and spin.

For small arms applications, trajectory modeling can often be simplified to bullet flight involving only four of these degrees-of-freedom, lumping the effects of pitch, yaw and spin into the effect bullet flight a yaw-of-repose to account for trajectory deflection.

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Once detailed range tables are established, shooters can relatively quickly adjust sights based on the range to target, wind, air temperature and humidity, and other geometric considerations, such as terrain elevation differences. Projectile path values are determined by both the sight height, or bullet flight distance of the line of sight above the bore centerline, and the range at which the sights are zeroed, which in turn determines the elevation angle.

A projectile following a ballistic trajectory has both forward and vertical motion. Forward motion is slowed due to air resistance, bullet flight in point mass modeling the vertical motion is dependent on a combination of the elevation angle and gravity.

External ballistics

Initially, bullet flight projectile is rising with respect to the line of sight or the horizontal sighting plane. The projectile eventually reaches its apex highest point in the trajectory parabola where bullet flight vertical speed component decays to zero under the effect of gravity, and then begins to descend, eventually impacting the earth.

The farther the distance to the intended target, the greater the elevation angle and the higher the bullet flight. The projectile path crosses the horizontal sighting plane two times.

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The point closest to the gun occurs while the bullet is climbing through the line of sight and is called the near zero. The second bullet flight occurs as the projectile is descending through the line of sight. It is called the bullet flight zero and defines the current sight in distance for the gun.

Projectile path is described numerically as distances above or below the horizontal sighting plane at various points along the trajectory.

This is in contrast to projectile drop which is referenced to the plane containing the line of departure regardless of the elevation angle. Since each of these two parameters uses a different reference datum, significant confusion can result because even though a projectile is tracking well below the line of departure it can still be gaining actual and bullet flight height with respect to the line of sight as well as the surface of the bullet flight in the case of a horizontal or near horizontal shot taken over flat bullet flight.

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Maximum point-blank range and battle zero[ edit ] Knowledge of the projectile drop and path has some practical uses to shooters even if it does not describe the actual trajectory of the projectile.

For example, if the vertical projectile position over a certain range reach is within the vertical height of the target area the shooter wants to hit, the point of aim does not necessarily need to be bullet flight over that range; the projectile is considered to have a sufficiently flat point-blank range trajectory for that particular target.

Soldiers are instructed to fire at any target within this range by simply placing their weapon's sights on the center of mass of the enemy target. Any errors in range estimation are tactically irrelevant, as a well-aimed shot will hit the torso of the enemy soldier.

The current trend for elevated sights and bullet flight cartridges in assault rifles is in part due to a desire to extend the maximum point-blank range, which makes the rifle easier bullet flight use.

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Mathematical modelssuch as computational fluid dynamics, are used for bullet flight the effects of drag or air resistance; they are quite complex and not yet completely reliable, but research bullet flight ongoing.

Fixed drag curve models generated for standard-shaped projectiles[ edit ] G1 shape standard projectile. Projectiles are described by a ballistic coefficientor BC, which combines the air resistance of the bullet shape the drag coefficient and its sectional density a function of mass and bullet diameter.